In order to address the problems of increasing mental illness during COVID19, improved awareness of the gender dimension of mental health during lockdowns is required. Based on our findings, we recommend that future policy and decision-making prioritise minimising negative impacts and injustice so that they may better reflect public health ethics. Conversely, the direct determinant of social isolation was not found to contribute to increased psychological distress for women, even though social isolation is a direct result of the restriction of mobility and connectedness of people that occurs with lockdown . Pre-pandemic studies have found men to be more socially isolated than women , and the ANU study found women to feel more connected than men. Global studies during the pandemic have shown mixed results regarding social isolation with no clear association with women experiencing more significant amounts of social isolation during lockdown.

Twenty-three studies met eligibility criteria and are included in this review . We developed a search strategy using indexing terms and keywords related to our inclusion criteria based on scoping searches run in PubMed. We searched PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and the WHO Global Index Medicus for studies between 1 January 2010 and 15 May 2020. We excluded studies published prior 2010 because the global refugee crisis started in 2011 and our resources limited our project timeline. See online supplemental appendix 1 for complete search strategies. We used EndNote V.X9 software33 to remove duplicate records.

Findings from the assessment suggest the lockdown policies generated and perpetuated avoidable inequities harming mental health demonstrated through increased psychological distress, particularly for women, through psychosocial determinants. A desk-based, retrospective Health Impact Assessment was undertaken to explore the health impacts of the lockdown public health directive with an equity focus, on the Victorian population, through reviewing available qualitative and quantitative published studies and grey literature. Since March 2020, when the COVID19 pandemic hit Australia, Victoria has been in lockdown six times for 264 days, making it the world’s longest cumulative locked-down city.

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The CPSTF also recommends interventions that promote social norms to protect against violence through bystander education and empowerment, engaging men and boys as allies in prevention, or both. This finding is based on a subset of studies that showed sufficient evidence of effectiveness in increasing bystander action in the short-term. Concerning the quality assessment , 1 study was estimated to have high risk of bias arising from the randomization process and 2 due to deviations from intended intervention. Eight studies were evaluated as having a high risk of bias in dealing with missing data and 4 in the measurement of the outcome. Five studies prespecified the analysis plan in a registered protocol; thus, selection of the reported result could not be excluded in the remaining studies. The pooled effect sizes for the different outcomes are presented in Table 2.

The results inform future intervention efforts and underscore the need for further study of middle school students. Intimate partner violence is a common, costly societal problem. Interventions designed to reduce IPV recidivism have had limited success but primary prevention efforts are likely to be more effective in reducing the occurrence of IPV. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a computer-based preventive intervention on IPV in a sample of married, community couples.

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Abuse occurs in an estimated 3-10% of young people’s intimate relationships. Psychological, physical and sexual violence in dating relationships have a significant impact on the mental and physical health of young people. Dating violence can have long-term consequences, such as depression, eating disorders, and substance abuse, and affect school performance.

Other elevations in psychological distress that occurred between May and August, saw a considerable deterioration of mental health for females in Victoria during the second lockdown . A strong association was evident between a symptom of depression and social connectedness with increased stress due to socioeconomic factors, such as income, housing and work hours . Similarly, data from the COLLATE study showed that during the first lockdown, negative emotions such as anxiety, depression and stress were more elevated for women.

Another study (Wolfe et al., 2003) reported improved self-confidence among high-risk youth who were high school age. Studies from the broader literature suggest potential for improved academic outcomes using similar types of interventions (Brown et al., 2011; Durlack et al. 2011). The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends primary prevention interventions that aim to reduce perpetration of intimate partner violence and sexual violence among youth. This is based on sufficient evidence of effectiveness that these interventions decrease perpetration of both intimate partner violence and sexual violence. Intimate partner violence and sexual violence are public health problems that affect many men and women in the United States.

Relations between peer victimization subtypes, family violence, and psychological outcomes during early adolescence. Prevention efforts require changes to both attitudes and behaviour. Future studies may need to focus more on measuring actual behaviours, rather than just knowledge and attitudes. Programmes may also need to consider contextual social factors, such as the influence of peers, on the social and behavioural development of young people. These findings suggest that there is a differential burden of mistreatment that must be addressed to improve the medical school learning environment.

Proving their love: Violence and gender norms in descriptions of relationships among rural Mexican adolescents

All study activities were conducted by members of the research team who are gay or bisexual Kenyan men who work directly with LGBTQ+-specific community-based organizations and clinics. A total of five interviewers conducted these interviews across our two sites—Kisumu and Nairobi. Given the purposive nature of our sampling frame, we recruited participants through outreach activities conducted by our interviewers at CBOs and health clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi that provide services to gay and bisexual men.

Kliewer, W., Lepore, S. J., Farrell, A. D., Allison, K. W., Meyer, A. L., Sullivan, T. N., & Greene, A. Y. A school-based expressive writing intervention for at-risk urban adolescents’ aggressive behavior and emotional lability. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40, 693–705. Applying systems theory to the evaluation of a whole school approach to violence prevention. Evaluation of a school-based violence prevention media literacy curriculum.