The following are selected journal entries from Printing Plus that affect the Cash account. We will use the Cash ledger account to calculate account balances. When calculating balances in ledger accounts, one must take into consideration which side of the account increases and which side decreases. To find the account balance, you must find the difference between the sum of all figures on the side that increases and the sum of all figures on the side that decreases.

You purchase $1,000 of materials during the accounting period. At the end of the period, you count $1,500 of ending inventory. The company can also review and verify the inventory on October 12, 2020, by comparing the inventory in the account record with the physical inventory count. This is a big advantage of the perpetual inventory system as the company can investigate immediately if there is any variance between the physical count and the account record. The purchase account is a temporary account, in which its normal balance is on the debit side. It will be used for the calculation of cost of goods at the end of the period.

  1. Not to mention, purchases and returns are immediately recorded in your inventory accounts.
  2. The date of each transaction related to this account is included, a possible description of the transaction, and a reference number if available.
  3. Likewise, the balance of inventory will increase by $13,000.

That concludes the journal entries for the basic transfer of inventory into the manufacturing process and out to the customer as a sale. There are also two special situations that arise periodically, which are adjustments for obsolete inventory and for the lower of cost or market rule. If you are operating a production facility, then the warehouse staff will pick raw materials from stock and shift it to the production floor, possibly by job number. This calls for another journal entry to officially shift the goods into the work-in-process account, which is shown below. If the production process is short, it may be easier to shift the cost of raw materials straight into the finished goods account, rather than the work-in-process account. There are two methods or systems to account for inventory including the perpetual system and periodic system.

Why is COGS important?

The visual below details how raw materials flow through the production process and eventually recognized as a cost of good sold when the item is sold. This is posted to the Cash T-account on the credit side beneath the January 18 transaction. This is placed on the debit present value of $1 annuity table side of the Salaries Expense T-account. Another example is a liability account, such as Accounts Payable, which increases on the credit side and decreases on the debit side. If there were a $4,000 credit and a $2,500 debit, the difference between the two is $1,500.

In each case the perpetual inventory system journal shows the debit and credit account together with a brief narrative. For a fuller explanation of journal entries, view our examples section. Common Stock had a credit of $20,000 in the journal entry, and that information is transferred to the general ledger account in the credit column. The balance at that time in the Common Stock ledger account is $20,000.

Perpetual vs Periodic Inventory System Journal Entries

Additional entries may be needed besides the ones noted here, depending upon the nature of a company’s production system and the goods being produced and sold. When an item is ready to be sold, transfer it from Finished Goods Inventory to Cost of Goods Sold to shift it from inventory to expenses. Then, credit your Accounts Payable account to show that you owe $1,000. Keep in mind that the above accounts are not all-inclusive. Depending on your transactions and books, your accounts may look or be called something different.

Inventory journal entries

Accountants use special forms called journals to keep track of their business transactions. A journal is the first place information is entered into the accounting system. A journal is often referred to as the book of original entry because it is the place the information originally enters into the system. A journal keeps a historical account of all recordable transactions with which the company has engaged. In other words, a journal is similar to a diary for a business. When you enter information into a journal, we say you are journalizing the entry.

Under the perpetual system, the company can make the inventory purchase journal entry by debiting inventory account and crediting accounts payable or cash account. Under the periodic system, the company can make the journal entry of inventory purchase by debiting the purchase account and crediting accounts payable or cash account. You will notice that the transactions from January 3, January 9, January 12, and January 14 are listed already in this T-account.

Note that this example has only one debit account and one credit account, which is considered a simple entry. A compound entry is when there is more than one account listed under the debit and/or credit column of a journal entry (as seen in the following). As a business owner, you may know the definition of cost of goods sold (COGS). But do you know how to record a cost of goods sold journal entry in your books?

If you sell products at your business, you likely have some form of inventory. Knowing how much inventory you have on hand, as well as how much you need to have in stock, is a crucial part of running your business. To help keep track of inventory, you need to learn how to record inventory journal entries. For example, on December 31, the company ABC which is a manufacturing company purchases $10,000 raw materials on credit from one of its suppliers. The company ABC receives all the purchased raw materials on the same day of December 31. The perpetual inventory method is a method of accounting for inventory that records the movement of inventory on a continuous (as opposed to periodic) basis.


There are debit and credit columns, storing the financial figures for each transaction, and a balance column that keeps a running total of the balance in the account after every transaction. Notice that for this entry, the rules for recording journal entries have been followed. It is a good idea to familiarize yourself with the type of information companies report each year. Peruse Best Buy’s 2017 annual report to learn more about Best Buy.

The raw materials usually include both direct raw materials and indirect raw materials. However, the company usually uses only one account, e.g. raw materials inventory, to record both direct raw materials and indirect raw materials. Recording both direct and indirect raw materials into only one account helps to ease the process of receiving and recording the raw materials. We know from the accounting equation that assets increase on the debit side and decrease on the credit side.

How to record cost of goods sold journal entry

Inventory is usually a big asset for the company, especially the merchandising company, as buying and selling the inventory is usually its main activity in the operation. Hence, it is important to properly account for inventory purchases in making journal entries into the accounting record. A mistake of recognition of inventory purchase may lead to a big misstatement on both the balance sheet and income statement. The company can make the journal entry of raw materials when it makes the purchase by debiting the raw materials account and crediting the accounts payable or cash account. In the journal entry, Utility Expense has a debit balance of $300.

Inventory is the difference between your COGS Expense and Purchases accounts. Your income statement includes your business’s cost of goods sold. It also shows your business’s sales, expenses, and net income. Simply put, COGS accounting is recording journal entries for cost of goods sold in your books. An interesting point about inventory journal entries is that they are rarely intended to be reversing entries (that is, which automatically reverse themselves in the next accounting period).

This similarity extends to other retailers, from clothing stores to sporting goods to hardware. No matter the size of a company and no matter the product a company sells, the fundamental accounting entries remain the same. You can see that a journal has columns labeled debit and credit. The debit is on the left side, and the credit is on the right. Your COGS Expense account is increased by debits and decreased by credits. If you don’t account for your cost of goods sold, your books and financial statements will be inaccurate.

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